Regulation of Private Schools in India

Reports by Vidhi Aid · May 1, 2017
Author(s): Ajey Sangai, Akriti Gaur and Shruti Ambasht

The last decade has witnessed growth in both the number of private schools in India and the proportion of children enrolled in them. The proportion of private schools rose from 19.49% in 2007-08 to 22.74% in 2014-15.  Around the same period, the share of enrolment of children between the ages of 6-14 in private schools rose from 19.3% to 30.8%.

The regulation of private schools in India remains an understudied topic, with little literature on the theory and practice of regulation, or on comparisons of different regulatory policies. The Right to Education Act, 2009, lays down norms and standards for private schools, including infrastructure norms, minimum teacher qualifications, pupil-teacher ratios and curricular standards. However, some aspects of private school operations continue to be governed almost exclusively by State laws, such as fee fixation and inspection of schools. Others are now governed by a combination of the RTE Act and State laws, such as recognition, hiring of staff and curriculum.

In this report, Vidhi has examined the existing regulatory framework for private schools in India, with a view to identifying common challenges and areas in need of reform. We have studied regulations for private schools in five States and proposed a normative framework for evaluating them. Based on the conclusions drawn from the evaluation, as well as existing international, constitutional and national legal obligations on private schools, we propose a roadmap for drafting State-level model regulations for private schools.

Regulation of Private Schools in India- Download Full Report


About Ajey Sangai:


About Akriti Gaur:

Akriti is a Senior Resident Fellow with the Public Law vertical. At Vidhi, she has advised several Ministries and public institutions of the Government of India, and the State Governments of Delhi and Karnataka. She has advised on projects relating to privacy and data protection, regulation of the digital economy, platform governance, cybersecurity and allied areas at the intersection of law and technology. She has also worked on research projects relating to school and higher education, public health, transport and urban governance, digital inclusion etc. Her research interests include constitutional law, governance reforms, tech policy, education and child rights, media law etc. Akriti graduated with a B.A. LL.B (Business Law Hons.) from the National Law University, Jodhpur in 2015. She regularly writes for media outlets such as the Hindu, Wire, Indian Express, EPW, Financial Express etc. She has published academic articles in journals like the Indian Journal of International Law and the Comparative Constitutional Law and Administrative Law Quarterly, and contributed Book chapters to volumes published by the Cambridge University Press and Oxford University Press (forthcoming). Link to full bio


About Shruti Ambasht: